New Temple

Jesus’ visitation of the Temple in Jerusalem in John 2 marks a significant transition in the life of Israel. As with his miracle at Cana, during which Jesus changed the water “…for the Jewish rites of purification” (v.6) into the wine of the New Covenant, Jesus continues fulfilling Jewish rites and institutions and doing away with the Old Covenant order.

Raymond Brown describes this transition well in The Gospel and Epistles of John: A Concise Commentray: “In the outer court of the Temple Jesus finds a virtual market where visitors could purchase the animals necessary for sacrifice and change their money for Tyrian half-shekels (coins religiously not objectionable). In attacking this commerce, Jesus is doing more than purging an abuse; the animals are the coins were necessary for Temple worship. In this cleansing Jesus is attacking the Temple itself. He has replaced Jewish purifications at Cana; now he shows that the very center of Jewish worship loses its meaning in his presence. The glorious presence of God, once confined to the Temple, has now become flesh in Jesus.” (p. 30)

The Lord has surely come to his temple. “But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can stand when he appears? … he will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, and they will bring offerings in righteousness to Yahweh. Then the offering of Judah and Jerusalem will be pleasing to Yahweh as in the days of old and as in former years.” (Mal. 3:2-4)

Jesus judges the Jerusalem temple and sets himself up as the true Temple. John emphasizes that his historic body is the Temple that, though destroyed, will rise “in three days.” (Jn. 2:19) Paul draws this out in 1 Corinthians 13 to tell us that, with Christ as our head, the ecclesial body, the Church, is “God’s temple” in which he dwells. “The glorious presence of God”, as Brown says, formerly housed in the Temple, incarnated in Jesus, is now with us. 

New Egypt

Matthew concludes his genealogy numbering the generations from Abraham to David, David to the deportation, and the deportation to Christ. But, of course, this seems to leave out an important detail: the people of the exile returned to the land. Why doesn’t Matthew include the return here?

Matthew is telling us what many Jews of the day knew to be true: although they had returned from their physical exile, they were in a very real sense still in a spiritual, theological exile. And Matthew’s point is that that exile is the one that really matters, the exile that Jesus is born into, and the one that he is sent to redeem his people from. In fact, it’s what the first Exodus was always about.

This makes sense of Matthew’s quotation and placement of Hosea 11:1. The Egypt out of which God’s Son is being called is, physically, Israel. The roles have reversed: Israel is the new Egypt, Herod is the new Pharaoh. And this is what Egypt, Pharaoh, and the Exodus always pointed toward, the New and Greater Exodus.

Notes on TNE, pt. 2: Language of Visual Appearance

 For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made.

In chapter one of Through New Eyes, James Jordan discusses how we are to interpret the world design as presented in the Bible. When readers today approach the Bible, we do say in a very modern and scientific way. We are trained to look at the world through the eyes of science; so when we talk about animals, we think of different species; when we talk about the stars, we think of what they are made of. But the Bible talks about animals that are clean and unclean, creeping animals and sea creatures. When the Bible talks about stars, we find that they are made to mark seasons and festivals, and to represent rulers and powers. Where we are used to thinking in a scientific worldview, the Bible speaks of the world in a different way all together. Jordan calls it the language of visual appearance.

We especially find the language of visual appearance used in Genesis 1. The Bible shows us that God has vested his creation with symbolism. Jordan lists two things this language accomplishes:

  • First, “…it gives a true description of the world as it is.” (pg. 12) That is to say, while the language is poetic and symbolic, it is not merely poetic and symbolic.
  • Second, “…the language of visual appearance in Genesis 1 serves to establish a visual grid, a worldview.” (pg. 12)Genesis 1 sets up the symbolic grid that carries through the rest of Holy Scripture.

Later, Jordan gives six imporules for interpretation:

  1. “…Biblical symbolism and imagery is not a code.”
  2. “…Biblical symbols do not exist in isolation.”
  3. “…we must always have clear-cut Biblical indication for any symbol or image we think we have found.”
  4. “…the heritage of the Church in systematic theology and in the history of exegesis is always a check on wild speculation.”
  5. “…Biblical symbolism must be interpreted in terms of Biblical presuppositions and philosophy.”
  6. “…the student of Biblical imagery must be alert to the work of other scholars.”

This is not to say that Genesis is not a literal, historical account. If the creation account were not literal, in fact, this symbolism would be relativized and weakened. Genesis is symbolic, typological, and poetic, but not merely so. It is also poetic. It’s the modern scientific mind that feels the need to separate the symbolic and the historical.

The purpose of the word is to reveal God. Man, the animals, the heavens and earth, the seas and mountains, are all pointers that reveal God and his truth. To understand this, we have to learn the language of visual appearance.

Children, Fathers, Young Men

Behind this triple division of the church [children, fathers, and young men in 1 Jn. 2] is the Old Testament sequence of offices – priest, king, and prophet. Priests are servants, who are given clear and detailed instructions for everything. They are “children,” following rules and serving. Since the church is a priesthood, John can call all his readers “children.” Kings have grown in maturity, and are called to make their own judgments about things as well as engage in battle. John’s “young men” are kings. Prophets are sages, wise men who have their senses trained to discern good and evil. They speak with authority because of that experience, and because of the Spirit in them, and so they are “fathers” to the kings and direct the priests. Every church needs each of these.

(Peter J. Leithart, The Epistles of John Through New Eyes: From Behind the Veil, pp. 77-78.)

Notes on TNE, pt. 1: Biblical Worldview

In the introduction to Through New Eyes: Developing a Biblical View of the WorldJames B. Jordan makes a point of distinguishing between the Christian worldview and the Biblical worldview. The Christian worldview seeks to establish a Christian view of philosophy, art, history, etc., and this is important. The Biblical worldview, on the other hand, is simply the way the Bible speaks and thinks, and if we will be faithful “hearers and doers of the Word,” the way we must speak and think. The Bible challenges our modern worldview and thought processes with a worldview that seems foreign and archaic. As Jordan says,

The Biblical worldview is not given to us is the discursive and analytical language of philosophy and science, but in the rich and compact language of symbolism and art. It is pictured in ritual and architecture, in numerical structures and geographical directions, in symbols and types, in trees and stars. In short, it is given to us in a premodern package that seems at places very strange. (TNE, p.1)

Jordan goes on to show that where we approach questions of the world around us scientifically, the Bible speaks of the world around us as primarily as revelation; that is, God’s creation is intrinsically symbolic and typological. We ask what stars are made of, but the Bible is concerned to tell us that they are given for marking time and to symbolize men and rulers.

Scientific questions are important, but if that is all we are seeing, we are not looking at the world through the lens of the Bible. We need new eyes.